Uncovering the links between diet, gut health, and immunity

الكشف عن الروابط بين النظام الغذائي وصحة الأمعاء والمناعة

A model of a high-protein diet in the induction of the sIgA response. Feeding a high-protein diet enhances the production of succinate by the gut microbiota. High levels of luminal succinate lead to intestinal bacterial cellular stress and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which promotes vesicle formation and increases production of bacterial-derived extracellular vesicles. Bacterium-derived extracellular vesicles can directly activate TLR4 expressed in the intestinal epithelium, leading to activation of downstream NFκB signaling that leads to increased expression of APRIL, CCL28 and PIGR, resulting in a T-cell-independent sIgA response. Increased TLR4 signaling also potentiates pro-inflammatory responses, leading to DSS-induced colitis. The increased intestinal succinate observed in IBD patients may contribute to the pathology of the disease by enhancing the production of microbe-derived extracellular vesicles and the TLR4/NFκB signaling pathway. attributed to him: Nature Communications (2022). DOI: 10.1038 / s41467-022-31761-y

A preclinical study from the University of Sydney found that a high-protein diet can alter the microbiome in the gut, triggering an immune response. The researchers say the study brings us one step closer to understanding the way diet affects gut health and immunity.

“The focus of our work is on how the gut microbiota – the trillions of bacteria that live in the gut – affects the immune system,” said Associate Professor Lawrence Macia of the Charles Perkins Center and University College of Medicine and Health.

“Our ultimate goal is to understand how we can manipulate bacteria to improve health, and we know that one of the easiest ways to change microbiota is to change the diet.”

However, scientists have traditionally focused on the role of dietary fiber in maintaining a healthy gut.

In this study, the first of its kind, published in Nature CommunicationsIn mice, the Charles Perkins Center team used sophisticated modeling to explore the effect of 10 diets with different combinations of macronutrients – protein, fat and carbohydrates.

They discovered that a High protein diet Altered composition and activity of the gut microbiota.

The mice were fed a high protein content diet Its increased production of extracellular bacterial vesicles, a complex payload containing bacterial information such as DNA and protein. The body then viewed this activity as a threat and triggered a chain of events where immune cells Travel to the gut wall.

“We found here that protein had a significant effect on gut germs And it wasn’t about what kind of bacteria were there, but what kind of activity. In essence, we discovered a new way of communication between gut bacteria and the host that was mediated by the protein,” Associate Professor Masia said.

While it’s too early to say whether this research might translate in humans, the researchers say that activating the immune system could prove to be either good or bad news.

“By increasing the antibodies in the gut, you may see strong protection against potential pathogens, such as salmonella, but on the downside, immune system It could mean you’re at an increased risk of colitis, and inflammatory bowel diseaseor autoimmune diseases such as Crohn’s disease,” said lead author and postdoctoral researcher Jian Tan.

The results appear consistent with the demographic impacts of modern diets, with the Western world experiencing lower rates of gastrointestinal infection but higher rates of chronic disease.

This advance in knowledge was made possible by incorporating the academic disciplines for which the Charles Perkins Center became known.

The study used the engineering framework for nutrition developed by Professor Stephen Simpson and Professor David Rubenheimer, arising from the study of ecology.

Professor Simpson said: “The ‘food engineering’ framework allows us to plan foods, meals, diets and dietary patterns together based on their nutritional composition, and this helps researchers to note otherwise overlooked patterns in the links between some diets and health and disease.” , Academic Director of the Charles Perkins Center.

“This is the first time this model has been applied in immunology and it can only happen here at the Charles Perkins Centre. We are excited about what could happen next,” Associate Professor Masia said.


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more information:
Jian Tan et al., Dietary protein increases T-cell-independent sIgA production through changes in extracellular vesicles derived from the gut microbiota, Nature Communications (2022). DOI: 10.1038 / s41467-022-31761-y

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Sydney University


the quote: Uncovering the Links Between Diet, Gut Health, and Immunity (2022, August 3) Retrieved on August 4, 2022 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-08-uncovering-links-diet-gut-health.html

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